Andrea Jones, APSD Northern Region consultant, has prepared this handy guide for mandated reporters of adult abuse, neglect or exploitation.


An APS report is an allegation made by any person to a Local Department of Social Services (LDSS) or to the 24-hour toll-free APS Hotline (1-888-832-3858) that he or she suspects that an elder or an incapacitated adult is being abused, neglected or exploited.

As the number of elders continues to climb in Virginia and elders increasingly rely on unprepared or overwhelmed family members for their care, vulnerable adults are found in precarious situations which lend themselves to abuse, neglect, and exploitation. In response, Virginia, like most other states, enacted laws requiring certain professionals, called mandated reporters, to contact the local department of social services or the APS Hotline when they suspect that an elder or an adult who is incapacitated is being abused, neglected, or exploited or is at risk of abuse, neglect or exploitation.

Virginia’s mandatory reporting law (§ 63.2-1606 of the Code of Virginia) requires mandated reporters to report immediately to LDSS or to the 24 hour toll-free APS hotline upon suspecting abuse, neglect, or exploitation. Mandated reporters must report to both law enforcement and medical examiners any deaths arising from suspected abuse or neglect. A civil penalty of up to $1,000 may be imposed for failure to report any suspected abuse, neglect or exploitation. Individuals who make APS reports in good faith are protected from civil or criminal liability.

Mandated reporters of adult abuse, neglect or exploitation include:

1) Any person licensed, certified, or registered by health regulatory boards listed below:

  • Board of Nursing: Registered Nurse (RN); Licensed Nurse Practitioner (LNP); Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN); Clinical Nurse Specialist; Certified Massage Therapist; Certified Nurse Aide (CNA)
  • Board of Medicine: Doctor of Medicine and Surgery, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine; Doctor of Podiatry; Doctor of Chiropractic; Interns and Residents; University Limited Licensee; Physician Assistant; Respiratory Therapist; Occupational Therapist; Radiological Technologist; Radiological Technologist Limited; Licensed Acupuncturists; Certified Athletic Trainers
  • Board of Pharmacy: Pharmacists; Pharmacy Interns; Permitted Physicians; Medical Equipment Suppliers; Restricted Manufacturers; Humane Societies; Physicians Selling Drugs; Wholesale Distributors; Warehousers, Pharmacy Technicians
  • Board of Dentistry: Dentists and Dental Hygienists Holding a License, Certification, or Permit Issued by the Board
  • Board of Funeral Directors and Embalmers: Funeral Establishments; Funeral Services Providers; Funeral Directors; Funeral Embalmers; Resident Trainees; Crematories; Surface Transportation and Removal Services; Courtesy Card Holders
  • Board of Optometry: Optometrist
  • Board of Counseling: Licensed Professional Counselors; Certified Substance Abuse Counselors; Certified Substance Abuse Counseling Assistants; Certified Rehabilitation Providers; Marriage and Family Therapists; Licensed Substance Abuse Treatment Practitioners
  • Board of Psychology: School Psychologist; Clinical Psychologist; Applied Psychologist; Sex Offender Treatment Provider; School Psychologist – Limited
  • Board of Social Work: Registered Social Worker; Associate Social Worker; Licensed Social Worker; Licensed Clinical Social Worker
  • Board of Long-Term Care Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator
  • Board of Audiology and Speech Pathology: Audiologists; Speech-Language Pathologists; School Speech-language Pathologists
  • Board of Physical Therapy: Physical Therapist; Physical Therapist Assistant

2) Any mental health services provider;

3) Any emergency medical services personnel certified by the Board of Health pursuant to § 32.1-111.5, personnel immediately reports the suspected abuse, neglect or exploitation directly to the attending physician at the hospital to which the adult is transported, who shall make such report forthwith;

4) Any guardian or conservator of an adult;

5) Any person employed by or contracted with a public or private agency or facility and working with adults in an administrative, supportive or direct care capacity;

6) Any person providing full, intermittent, or occasional care to an adult for compensation, including but not limited to companion, chore, homemaker, and personal care workers; and

7) Any law-enforcement officer.


Every APS report must meet certain criteria in order for it to be deemed a “valid” report. The term “valid” does not refer to accuracy of the report but to specific elements that must be present to establish APS authority and jurisdiction:

  • The adult must be at least 60 years or older or age 18 to 59 and incapacitated;
  • The adult must be living and identifiable;
  • Circumstances must allege abuse, neglect or exploitation; and
  • The local department must be the agency of jurisdiction.

If APS validity criteria are not met, the local department or APS Hotline may refer the reporter to other LDSS programs or an appropriate human service agency or other service provider.


ADULT ABUSE is defined by the Code of Virginia, (§ 63.2-100), as “the willful infliction of physical pain, injury or mental anguish or unreasonable confinement of an adult.” Abuse includes battery and other forms of physical violence including, hitting, kicking, burning, choking, scratching, rough-handling, cutting, and biting, etc. It includes sexual assault, inflicting pornography, voyeurism, exhibitionism, and other forms of forced sexual activity on an elder or an incapacitated adult. It includes any sexual activity with an adult who is unable to understand or give consent, the control of an adult through the use of threats or intimidation, and the abuse of a relationship of trust.

ADULT NEGLECT is defined by the Code of Virginia, (§ 63.2-100), as “an adult is living under such circumstances that he is not able to provide for himself or is not being provided services necessary to maintain his physical and mental health and that the failure to receive such necessary services impairs or threatens to impair his well-being. However, no adult shall be considered neglected solely on the basis that such adult is receiving religious nonmedical treatment or religious nonmedical nursing care in lieu of medical care, provided that such treatment or care is performed in good faith and in accordance with the religious practices of the adult and there is a written or oral expression of consent by that adult.” This definition includes both adults who are self-neglecting, living under such circumstances that the adult is unable to provide for himself/herself as well as adults whose needs for physical or mental health services are not being met by a caregiver or responsible party.

Indicators of neglect include malnourishment, dehydration, the presence of pressure sores, inadequate personal hygiene, inadequate or inappropriate clothing, inadequate or inappropriate supervision, extreme filth of person or home, severe pest/rodent infestation, offensive odors, inadequate heat, lack of electricity or refrigeration, and untreated physical or mental health problems.

ADULT EXPLOITATION is defined by the Code of Virginia, (§ 63.2-100), as “the illegal use of an incapacitated adult or his resources for another’s profit or advantage.” Exploitation, including financial abuse and sexual exploitation, is accomplished by the use of covert, subtle, and deceitful means. It is usually a pattern of behavior rather than a single episode. Financial exploitation includes the crimes of larceny, embezzlement, theft by false pretenses, burglary, forgery, false impersonation, and extortion.


Section 164.512 (Paragraph C) of the Code of Federal Regulations for the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) authorizes covered entities to disclose health information that “is required by law and disclosure complies with and is limited to the relevant requirements of the law.” This includes sharing information with APS for the purposes of an APS investigation.

All providers of medical services are also authorized to disclose records of a patient to APS under § 32.1-127.1:03 D.6 of the Code of Virginia (Health Records Privacy).


Training for mandated reporters on recognizing and reporting adult abuse, neglect, and exploitation is available through the Virginia Department of Social Services public website at the following location:


In addition, the Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Commission has developed training to improve awareness of financial exploitation. To view the training modules please visit the link below:


Another important resource is available at Virginia Coalition for the Prevention of Elder Abuse: